|Author||DOI||Year||Country||Dates||Aim of the study||Study Design||Type of rehabilitation service||Research Question||LFRI||COVID-19 Phases||Population||N° of participants||Clinical presentation||Intervention||Comparator||Outcomes||Adverse events||Diagnostic test||Sensitivity||Specifity||Types of validity||Attributes of reliability||Main findings|
|Abdulsalam MA||10.1111/ane.13321||2020||Kuwait||N/A||To report a case of generalized status epilepticus as a possible initial manifestation of COVID-19||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Mental functions b1)||Acute||COVID-19||1||Continuous tonic-clonic seizures||Intubated and mechanically ventilated,Intravenous diazepam but was ineffective, Intravenous midazolam||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This is a case of a 32-year-old male who presented generalized status epilepticus without a prior history of seizure or epilepsy as a possible initial manifestation of COVID-19 infection. He had no other symptoms of COVID-19.
|Akram A||10.7759/cureus.9320||2020||Pakistan||N/A||To describe the case of an elderly patient with preexisting IPF and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV- 2, who presented acutely with rapid progression to septic shock||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis developing COVID-19||1||high fever, hypotension, confusion, lethargy, tachypnea, bilateral crackles||hydroxychloroquine 400 mg × BD, IV azithromycin 400 mg × OD, IV solu cortef 100 mg × TDS, heparin, IV fluids and a norepinephrine infusion.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This case reports an acute COVID-19 infection in a elderly patient with IPF.
|Avci A||10.1007/s13365-020-00888-3||2020||Turkey||N/A||To report a case of subarachnoid hemorrhage developing in patient with Covid-19-related pneumonia||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Mental functions b1)||Acute||COVID-19||1||Subarachnoid hemorrhage with impaired consciousness||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||A 50-year-old male with no concomitant disease was admitted to the emergency department due to impaired consciousness: lung imaging suggested COVID-19-associated pneumonia and cerebral tomography revealed subarachnoidal hemorrhage. The patient was hospitalized in ICU and died on the 83rd day due to COVID-19-associated pneumonia. In the presence of an anamnesis suggesting respiratory system infection such as cough and weakness in patients who come with sudden loss of consciousness, performing lung imaging as well as the performing brain computerized tomography can allow detection of an underlying Covid-19 infection.|
|Bagnato S||10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.072||2020||Italy||From March to June, 2020||To describe neurophysiological findings from a patient who developed critical illness myopathy after a long stay in ICU for COVID-19||Descriptive: Case Report||General postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions b7)||Post-acute||COVID-19||1||Diffuse and symmetrical muscle weakness (ranging from 3/5 to 4/5 on MRC) 68 days post COVID-19 onset. Deep tendon reflexes reduced in lower limb. The patient walked a few steps with assistance.||Rehabilitation program 3 h/day for 6 days/week for 2 months||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The patient had a critical illness myopathy confirmed by NCS/EMG/DMS. She underwent a rehabilitation treatment for 2 months with almost complete motor recovery. Given a large number of patients with COVID-19 who require long ICU stays, many are very likely to develop this condition in the coming months. Since rehabilitation programs can be effective, health systems must plan to provide adequate access to rehabilitative facilities for both pulmonary and motor rehabilitative treatment after COVID-19.|
|Basi S||10.1136/bcr-2020-235920||2020||UK||April 2020||To describe a case report of a 66-year- old man with an acute ischaemic stroke in the setting of a COVID-19 infection||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions b7)||Acute||COVID-19||1||At the admission the patient showed a left-sided weakness, an incresed musle tone in his left upper limb, a mild left facial droop, and a deterioration in his speech pattern. Moreover, he required 2 L of nasal cannula oxygen to maintain his oxygen saturations between 88% and 92%. Then, his respiratory condition worsened and his levels of consciousness reduced. The patient was pronounced dead by doctors at four days after the admission.||Nasal cannula oxygen at 2 L and then Venturi mask at 8 L of oxygen; intravenous and ciprofloxacin; 300 mg of aspirin||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||A 66 yrs old patient admitted with diagnosis of right frontal cerebral infarct had a concomitant COVID-19 pneumonia. In his clinical history he had atrial fibrillation and had one previous ischaemic stroke, with a consequent left-sided haemiparesis, that had completely resolved. His worsening respiratory condition and reduced levels of consciousness, present during the LOS, made it impossible to assess progression of the neurological deficit after stroke. His comatose condition persisted throughout the admission. The patient was pronounced dead by doctors at four days after the admission.|
|Belli S||10.1183/13993003.02096-2020||2020||Italy||N/A||To assess the proportion of COVID-19 patients with low physical functioning and/or impaired performance of ADLs at the time of discharge.||Descriptive: Historical cohort||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Any Activity limitation and participation restriction (d)||Post-acute||COVID-19||115||N/A||N/A||N/A||- 1-minute sit-to-stand test - Short Physical performance Battery - Barthel Index||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||103 of 115 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 survived and were discharged at home
|Benger M||10.1016/j.bbi.2020.06.005||2020||UK||From 1st February 2020 to 14th May 2020||To provide a description of clinical, radiological and laboratory characteristics of consecutive patients presenting to King’s College Hospital (KCH) with ICH in association with COVID-19||Descriptive: Case Series||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Neuromusculoskeletal and movement related functions b7)||Acute||COVID-19||5||Case 1:
||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||5 relatively young patients with COVID-19 suffered from ICH with a mean age lower than expected for ICH
|Bolaji P||10.1136/bcr-2020-236820||2020||UK||N/A||To report a COVID-19 case with extensive cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with bilateral venous cortical infarcts and acute cortical haemorrhage||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Mental functions b1)||Acute||COVID-19 with CVST||1||Left-sided weakness, left-sided sensory inattention, and subsequent focal seizures, then status epilepticus and coma||Anticoagulation and antiepileptic, intubation, then inpatient rehabilitation||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This case reports of a 63 yrs old man a potential association between CVST and COVID-19 infection.
|Chakraborty U||10.1136/bcr-2020-238668||2020||India||N/R||To report a case of acute transverse myelitis associated with COVID-19 infection in a 59-year-old female||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||COVID-19||1||Acute-onset progressive ascending flaccid paraplegia, retention of urine, constipation, and fever. No lower limbs deep tendon reflexes, a sensory level at T10 segment. After injectable steroids she did show some signs of recovery. A day later, she developed an acute- onset respiratory failure, a sudden cardiac arrest and she died despite resuscitation maneuvers.||Corticosteroids||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Considering the onset of ATM symptoms in the background of a confirmed COVID-19 test and initial improvement with steroids, ATM may be considered as an immune-mediated response to the virus. It is rare but it has severe consequences and early identification is very important to initiate appropriate treatment.|
|Cunha P||10.1111/ene.14474||2020||France||N/A||To describe a new type of delayed onset movement disorders in five patients who were admitted to ICUs for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection||Descriptive: Case Series||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Sensory functions and pain b2)||Post-acute||COVID-19||5||Upper limbs postural and action-tremor was observed in 4 patients,
||- in ICU: intubation and ventilation||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|D'Andrea S||10.1038/s41394-020-0319-0||2020||Italy||April 2020||To evaluate differences in clinical features and evolution of COVID-19 between people with SCI and able-bodied individuals||Descriptive: Historical cohort||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||SCI patients developing COVID-19||15||Out of 15 SCI-patients affected by COVID-19, 10 (66.7%) were symptomatic, 10 (66.7%) with fever, 9 (60.0%) with dry cough, 3 (20.0%) had dyspnea, 2 (13.4%) with diarrhea, 1 (6.7%) had anosmia, and 2 (13.4%) had fatigue.||All individuals who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 among SCI patients (cases) and able-bodied healthcare workers (controls) were enrolled in a historic cohort study||COVID-19 able-bodied controls (n=17)||COVID-19 clinical features; COVID-19 radiological findings; COVID-19 treatment; COVID-19 evolution||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Fever and dry cough were the most common symptoms of COVID-19 without significant differences between SCI patients and able-bodied controls. In conclusion, the authors showed that in their sample SCI patients had a favorable prognosis, not differing from controls. Therefore, the authors hypothesized that it is due to the early COVID-19 diagnosis, with a consequent prompt management; however, future larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings.|
|Figueiredo R||10.1136/bcr-2020-237146||2020||Portugal||N/A||To present a case of a term pregnancy diagnosed with COVID-19 after presenting with isolated peripheral facial palsy.||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||pregnant woman with COVID-19||1||A 35-year-old woman, primigravida, 39-week gestation, presenting with involuntary drooling with acute peripheral facial palsy||
||N/A||Facial palsy severity||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Franco C||10.1183/13993003.02130-2020.||2020||Italy||From March 1st to May 10th,2020||To analyze the safety of the hospital staff, the feasibility, and outcomes of noninvasive respiratory support applied to patients outside the ICU.||Descriptive: Historical cohort||General postacute rehabilitation||Meso Level||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Post-acute||COVID-19||670||N/A||163 HFNC, 330 CPAP, 177 NIV||N/A||Length of stay in hospital, endotracheal intubation and deaths||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|| The majority of patients (49.3%) were treated with CPAP. The overall unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 26.9% with 16%, 30%, and 30%, while the total endotracheal intubation rate was 27% with 29%, 25% and 28%, for HFNC, CPAP, and NIV, respectively, and the relative probability to die was not related to the NRS.
|Ghanchi H||10.7759/cureus.9995||2020||USA||From March to April, 2020 (intra-COVID period)||To assess the impact of COVID-19 on the volume of stroke patients in Colton Institution, California, and also on regional and national levels||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Stroke Patients (intra-COVID period)||262||N/A||N/A||Stroke volumes in pre-COVID period (March and April 2019) and peri-COVID period (January and February 2020)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Hajdu SD||10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030794||2020||International||November 2019 - April 2020||To determine the effect on endovascular therapy for patients with acute ischemic stroke during the COVID-19 confinement||Descriptive: Historical cohort||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Stroke Patients (treated with endovascular therapy in the COVID-19 period )||1600||N/A||To compare outcome measures according to the COVID-19 confinement (dates identified for each country varying from March 9, 2020 to March 23, 2020)||Patients treated by endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke before COVID-19 confinement||Mean number of endovascular therapies performed and mean stroke onset-to-groin puncture time interval (minutes) per hospital and per 2-week interval||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||There was a significant decrease in mean number of endovascular therapies performed per hospital per 2-week interval between before and after COVID-19 confinement (9.0 vs 6.1; p<0.001). Moreover, the authors observed a significant increase in mean stroke onset-togroin puncture time between before and after COVID-19 confinement (300.3 vs 354.5 minutes; p<0.001). Less interventions might lead to a higher disability.|
|Han X||10.1097/PHM.0000000000001535||2020||China||From December 30, 2019 to February 17, 2020||To analyze the infection features of inpatients with brain damage in one rehabilitation ward of a large general hospital with natural exposure to COVID-19 at the beginning of the outbreak||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||General postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Prevalence||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Brain injury rehabilitation inpatients developing COVID-19||25||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||4 of 25 patients (16%) with brain damage admitted to this rehabilitation ward were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia. COVID-19 patients were older (60.5 vs 50), with a higher prevalence rate of tracheotomy (75% vs 9.5%) and underlying pulmonary infection (100% vs 38.1%). Their modified Barthel Index scores were significantly lower than those of noninfected subjects (7.5 ± 9.6 vs 29.5 ± 26.4). Brain damage inpatients with impaired airways and low activity levels are more susceptible to COVID-19 and can easily become severely ill or even die.|
|Hemphill NM||10.1016/j.cjca.2020.04.038||2020||USA||From the beginning of 2020 to April 5th||To quantify the change in physical activity observed during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in children with CHD||Analytical: Cohort study||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Children with CHD||109||N/A||Physical activity in the first 14 weeks of 2020||Physical activity in the corresponding weeks in 2019||Weekly average step counts||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This paper compares the physical activity, measured as weekly average step counts, of children with CHD in the first 14 weeks of 2020 and compare it with the same period in 2019: from January through early March (week 1 to 12), 2019 and 2020 step-counts are similar and increasing, while later in March, 2020 step-counts are significantly lower than 2019 (week 13 and 14). Reduced physical activity due to COVID-19 pandemic may have negative impacts on physical, cardiovascular and mental health in children with CHD: long term impact need to be considered.|
|Hermann M||10.1097/PHM.0000000000001549||2020||Switzerland||From March to May, 2020||To characterize COVID-19 patients referred to in- patient rehabilitation and describe performance and outcome during cardiopulmonary rehabilitation.||Analytical: Cohort study||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Micro - Interventions (efficacy/harms)||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Post-acute||COVID-19||28||N/A||Multimodal 2-4 weeks inpatient CR: 25-30 therapy sessions, 5-6 days per week.||CRQ, HADS, CIRS, FIM, 6-MWT, FT||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The cohort presents patients referred for CR who was divided into mechanically ventilated patients (n=12) or not ventilated patients (n=16) in the acute hospital setting in order to analyze the impact of very severe COVID-19.
|Hsueh S-J||10.1016/j.jfma.2020.07.042||2020||Taiwan||March to May||To report a possible neuromuscular manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Acute||COVID-19 with quadriplegia||1||- 51-year-old Taiwanese woman with a history of hypertension and obesity - On admission: dyspnea - Post-extubation: quadriplegia with intact pinprick sensation intact, and mildly decreased vibratory sensation in the ankles||- intubation - rosuvastatin, cisatracurium, zithromycin, meropenem, lopinavir/ ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine, baricitinib and sedative agents||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This is the case report of a middle-aged woman found positive to SARS-CoV-2 after a travel to Europe. Due to progressive dyspnea, she was intubated and on March 15th and extubated on April 9th. The PCR for SARS-CoV-2 became negative since April 6th. The following days she remained quadriplegic with gradual recovery which led her to be able to walk again on May 1st. Laboratory and instrumental exams were compatible with myopathy. Follow-up in late May 2020 revealed full muscle power. Authors suggest that inflammatory myopathy should be considered as a cause for persistent respiratory failure and weakness in patients with COVID-19|
|Khare J||10.1016/j.dsx.2020.08.012||2020||India||N/A||To study the effect of lock down on glycemic control in diabetic patients and possible factor responsible for this||Analytical: Cohort study||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||N/A||N/A||Adult patients with type 2 diabetes||143||N/A||N/A||Same population - pre-lock down||Fasting Blood Glucose Post Prandial Blood Glucose||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This study compared assessed the effects of lock-down on blood glucose levels in adults with type 2 diabetes.
Both fasting and postprandial blood glucose in lock down period were higher than prior to lock down, statistically significant
difference was seen with postprandial blood glucose only.
The most common factor worsening of hyperglycemia were:
|Lascano AM||10.1111/ene.14368||2020||Switzerland||From March to April 2020||To report a series of three cases of typical GBS, preceded by classic signs and symptoms of biologically confirmed COVID-19||Descriptive: Case Series||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||COVID-19||3||Distal paresthesias and rapidly progressive limb weakness, evolving to either moderate tetraparesis (2/3) or tetraplegia (1/3) and areflexia (3/3) within the first 5 days. Two patients presented with pain and only one with bulbar signs and facial biplegia. Neurological symptoms appeared within the first 22 days (7, 15 and 22 days) after the appearance of typical COVID-19-related symptoms.||Intravenous immunoglobulin||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Three patients presented a classic demyelinating pattern, occurring 15 (7-22) days after classic signs and symptoms of biologically confirmed COVID-19. All three patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and had a favourable clinical course: one fully recovered and was discharged, another one was able to walk with assistance and the last one remained bedridden but was able to rise to standing up.|
|Le Guennec L||10.1111/epi.16612||2020||France||N/A||To report a case of status epilepticus as the first manifestation of COVID-19||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||COVID-19||1||At admission: 5-day history of cough, fever, and anosmia One week after admission: verbal perseverations and imitation behavior, drowsiness||- mechanical ventilation - intravenous levetiracetam - IV-Immunoglobulins at 2g/kg||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This is a case report of a 69-year-old patient admitted to ICU for status epilepticus who required endotracheal intubation. He had a medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and a single seizure. The patient was treated with IV-Immunoglobulins. He improved after one week, allowing for weaning from mechanical ventilation, but he presented signs of frontal lobe syndrome. MRI at day 15 showed the persistence of a marked hyperintensity of the right caudate nucleus and a significant decrease of the hyperintensity of the prefrontal cortex, MRI at day 30 was normal. Authors hypothesized that this particular form of orbitofrontal status epilepticus might have been triggered by the passage of SARS-CoV2 through the olfactory pathway|
|Lee AJY||10.1016/j.physio.2020.06.002||2020||Singapore||N/A||To describe clinical course and physiotherapy intervention in a sample of COVID-19 patients||Descriptive: Case Series||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Post-acute||COVID-19||9||Out of 9 patients (median age: 66 years), one case (Case 7) with pre-existing asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome, showing with a dry and unproductive cough, was referred for respiratory care. All the other patients were referred for rehabilitation; of these, exertional and positional-related oxygen desaturation was a common feature in five patients (Case 1, 2, 5, 6, 8). One individual (Case 1) demonstrated severe and persistent postural hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation decreased to <90% when seated upright from a supine position and lasted beyond 4 weeks following ICU discharge).||Rehabilitative therapy sessions were organised into small interval sessions with multiple rest breaks in between exercise sets. Interval training was prescribed in the initial stages of the rehabilitation before gradually progressing to continuous training, as the patients were unable to tolerate continuous aerobic exercises.||N/A||Clinical course||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Early detection of COVID-19 infection and management and recognition of this phenomenon is mandatory. A tailored rehabilitation approach should be performed in accordance with patient tolerance. A prolonged duration of rehabilitation course may be expected especially for severly ill patients|
|Longobardi Y||10.1177/0194599820948043||2020||Italy||From April 7 to May 11, 2020||To describe a remote approach used with patients with voice prosthesis after laryngectomy during the COVID- 19 pandemic and the resulting clinical outcomes in terms of voice prosthesis complications management, oncological monitoring, and psychophysical well-being.||Analytical: Cohort study||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Meso Level||N/A||N/A||Adult laryngectomy patients who use a voice prosthesis||73||N/A||- semi structured interviews to inquire about the nature of the need
- on the basis of the answers, telematic contact with the relevant professional figure
- if needed, subsequent outpatient visit
|Maideniuc C||10.1007/s00415-020-10145-6||2020||USA||N/A||To describe a case of COVID 19 patient with ANM and AMAN, a rare variant of GBS, without systemic signs of infection||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||COVID-19 with ANM||1||At the admission, the 61-year-old woman showed increased tone in the lower extremities and weakness of upper and lower extremities (worse in the lower ones); reflexes were normal in the upper extremities but brisk in the lower extremities with upgoing toes bilaterally. The patient continued to progress and became quadriparetic. At 3 weeks after her initial onset of symptoms, she was areflexic in all extremities. EMG showed evidence of acute motor axonal neuropathy with normal sensory conductions||Methylprednisolone 1 g IV for 5 days without improvements. Then, at 3 weeks she received five rounds of plasma exchange and was discharged to an inpatient rehabilitation setting.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The authors reported the first case of COVID 19 patient who presented with GBS and ANM at the same time without any systemic manifestation. Immunotherapy seemed to have a role in immune-mediated neurological conditions associated with COVID-19. The patient started to stand up with the assistance and was able to take few steps with the walker at the rehabilitation facility after the discharge from the Neurology Unit. It is mandatory an early diagnosis and a consequent early management of immuno-mediated neurological conditions associated with COViD-19|
|Mella-Abarca W||10.3332/ecancer.2020.1085||2020||Chile||From April to June 22nd, 2020||To describe a model of physical therapy using telerehabilitation for people with breast cancer during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile||Descriptive: Historical cohort||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Meso Level||N/A||N/A||People with breast cancer||118||N/A||Telerehabilitation||N/A||Side effects of breast cancer surgery, including lymphedema, axillary web syndrome, limited movement in the upper limbs and reduced muscle strength||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This paper describe a model of physical therapy using telerehabilitation for people with breast cancer and report data on its implementation: during the pandemic, 226 care events have been recorded, 142 (63%) of which correspond to tele-rehabilitation in 118 patients. Both patients and physiotherapists reported a high level of acceptance and satisfaction. The model can be implemented in the case of telerehabilitation when face-to-face appointments can not be performed and can be facilitated by:
|Mooney B||10.1007/s11420-020-09778-0||2020||USA||From April 4, 2020, to May 30, 2020||To determine the outcomes of a collaboration between PT and SLP in the treatment of COVID-19 patients who underwent tracheostomy placement||Descriptive: Case Series||Rehabilitation in acute care||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||3||Patient 1: A 33-year-old woman. Post-weaning, she exhibited delirium, right upper extremity myopathy/neuropathy, anxiety.
Patient 2: An 81-year-old man. Post-weaning, he produced thick, purulent secretions, a pressure ulcer, constipation, delirium, and respiratory stridor.
Patient 3: An 84-year-old man. Post-weaning, he was diagnosed with toxic metabolic encephalopathy and MRI signs of a subacute stroke. Moreover, he was found to have a pulmonary embolism.
|PT interventions focused on breathing mechanics, secretion clearance, posture, sitting balance, and upper and lower extremity strengthening. SLP interventions focused on cognitive reorganization, verbal and nonverbal communication, secretion management, and swallowing function.||N/A||Achievement of PT and SLP functional milestones, including mobility, communication, and swallowing.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Three patients with COVID-19 received coordinated PT and SLP following prolonged intubation and tracheostomy.
|Muhammad S||10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.015||2020||Germany||N/A||To report the first case of COVID-19 positive patient presenting with a concomitant subarachnoid haemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute||COVID-19||1||60-year-old COVID-19 positive patient presenting with a concomitant subarachnoid haemorrhage from an intracranial aneurysm||- intubation
- microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysm
|Negrini S||10.1016/j.apmr.2020.08.001||2020||Italy||From January to March, 2020||To investigate the feasibility and acceptability of telemedicine as a substitute for outpatient services in emergency situations such as COVID-19||Descriptive: Historical cohort||Specialized outpatient rehabilitation||Meso Level||N/A||N/A||Patients with spinal disorders||1207||N/A||Usual consultations and physiotherapy during the control and COVID phases, only telemedicine services (telephysiotherapy and teleconsultations) during the telemed phase||Control phase of 30 working days including the usual services before the spread of COVID-19 (January 7-February 23); a COVID phase of 13 working days during which there was a surge of usual services before starting telemedicine (February 24-March 14)||number of services provided in 3 phases; continuous quality improvement questionnaires||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||During telemed phase, 325 teleconsulations and 882 telephysiotherapy sessions V30were provided in 15 days.
|Ntaios G||10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031208||2020||International||January 2020 - May 2020||To assess whether stroke severity and outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke are different between COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients||Descriptive: Historical cohort||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Acute||COVID-19 inpatients with acute ischemic stroke||174||The most prevalent COVID symptoms were fever (55.2%,), cough (53.5%), and dyspnoea (43.7%). The main stroke symptoms were motor (67.8%), dysarthria (46%), and sensory (42%). The median NIHSS was 10.||Assessment of stroke severity and outcomes (assessed at discharge or at the latest assessment for those patients still hospitalized) in patients with acute ischemic stroke||Non-COVID-19 patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke registered in the Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne Registry between 2003 and 2019.||mRS||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Forty-eight COVID-19 patients (27.6%) died, of which 22 were attributed to COVID-19 and 26 to stroke. Among 96 survivors, 49 (51%) had severe disability at discharge. Patients with COVID-19 resulted to have higher risk for severe disability (median mRS 4 vs 2; p<0.001) and death (OR: 4.3) compared with patients without COVID-19.|
|Peng M||10.12998/WJCC.V8.I15.3305||2020||China||January-February 2020||To present two cases of COVID-19 who received MV and were managed successfully with a sequential weaning protocol||Descriptive: Case Series||Rehabilitation in acute care||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||2||Fever, cough and fatigue at admission; failed improvement after 2 hours of non-invasive ventilation, requiring MV||MV sequential weaning protocol, attentive to the timing of intubation and extubation, early prone positioning (12 hours/day during the first 5 days of MV), infection control, and sequential advancement and withdrawal of invasive ventilation||N/A||MV weaning||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Two critical COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure firstly received NIV and, due to the missing improvement after two hours, were following advanced to MV. Using a sequential weaning protocol, the patients were successfully extubated and placed on NIV and, later, on high-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy. The patients were then transferred from the ICU to the common ward. Based on the good outcomes of the patients, the proposed weaning protocol could be considered for patients with critical COVID-19.|
|Perrin P||10.1111/ene.14491||2020||France||From March 9 to April 9, 2020||To describe the neurological manifestations of patients with COVID-19 and gain pathophysiological insights especially with respect to the CRS||Descriptive: Case Series||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Nervous system structures (s1) and related functions (Mental functions b1)||Acute||COVID-19||5||Neurological presentation included confusion (n = 5), tremor (n = 5), cerebellar ataxia (n = 5), behavioral alterations (n = 5), aphasia (n = 4), pyramidal syndrome (n = 4), coma (n = 2), cranial nerve palsy (n = 1), and central hypothyroidism (n = 3).||corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Neurological disturbances occurred in the second week after COVID-19 onset in 3 cases (in the others, the exact onset was not assessable because of the critical conditions). Neurological disturbances were remarkably accompanied by laboratory evidence of CRS. Brain MRI findings comprised evidence of acute leukoencephalitis (n = 3, of whom one with a hemorrhagic form), cytotoxic edema mimicking ischemic stroke (n = 1), or normal results (n = 2). Treatment with corticosteroids and/or intravenous immunoglobulins was attempted with recovery from neurological disturbances in two cases. These data indicate that corticosteroids aimed at tackling CRS and IVIg may be effective to control severe neurological disturbances in patients with COVID-19.|
|Pisano TJ||10.1097/PHM.0000000000001578||2020||USA||N/A||To report the case of acute SCI with COVID-19 that developed bilateral DVT despite chemoprophylaxis||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Acute non traumatic SCI developing COVID 19||1||At the admission, 48 year old male showed urinary retention, constipation, lower extremity weakness and sensory impairment. MRI revealed multilevel degenerative disk disease with a T11-12 compressive mass of unclear etiology. He was transferred to a tertiary facility for higher level of neurosurgical care with no lower extremity motor or sensory function. Here, after surgical intervention he had T11 AIS A paraplegia. Then, patient had a diagnosis of DVT with a consequent change in his anticoagulation therapy from chemoprophylaxis dosing to therapeutic dosing using a heparin algorithm infusion (1650 units/hour) with a PTT target range of 50-70 seconds. Anticoagulation was transitioned to oral 15 mg rivaroxaban at a dose of 15 mg two times per day on hospital discharge (day 16)||The patient underwent a T10-L1 decompressive laminectomy removing of a large extruded T11-12 herniated disc and was started on VTE chemoprophylaxis with heparin 5000 units administered subcutaneously three times||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The patient presented acute nontraumatic SCI that has an inherent increased risk for VTE, and COVID-19 without significant respiratory symptoms. During hospitalization, the patient developed first extensive bilateral lower extremity deep vein thrombosis despite chemoprophylaxis, and then bilateral pulmonary embolism, despite therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the need for clinicians to have elevated vigilance in regards to screening and treatment for VTE in high-risk patients, such as SCI with a concurrent diagnosis of COVID-19, because might require more aggressive management or interventions.|
|Quinn L||10.1093/ptj/pzaa128||2020||USA||N/A||to describe a physical activity coaching program for individuals newly diagnosed with Parkinson Disease and to highlight rapid modifications made to this program in response to the COVID-19 pandemic||Analytical: Cohort study||Specialized outpatient rehabilitation||Meso Level||N/A||N/A||people with early-mid stage Parkinson Disease||27||N/A||adaptation to telehealth delivery of a physical activity coaching program which included 1:1 coaching, goal-setting, physical activity monitoring, and use of a disease-specific workbook to promote and support safe exercise uptake||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Ros-Castelló V||10.1002/mdc3.13025||2020||Spain||N/A||to report a case of a patient who developed myoclonus after a COVID-19 infection recovery||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Post-acute||COVID-19||1||At admission:
- 5-day history of fever and shortness of breath
One month after admission:
- progressively disabling myoclonus in upper limbs and negative myoclonus in lower limbs leading to falls
- high flow oxygen therapy and prone position
- ceftriaxone, azithromycin, meropenem
- prophylactic doses of low-molecular-weight heparin
After myoclonus onset:
- low doses of clonazepam
|N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This is the case report of a 72 years old woman who developed myoclonus after a COVID-19 infection. Two days after admission, the patient was intubated due to hypoxemia and treated with antivirals, hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics and corticosteroids an prophylactic LMWH., One month from admission and two weeks from the withdrawal of antibiotics, antivirals and corticosteroids, she developed progressively disabling myoclonus in upper limbs and negative myoclonus in lower limbs. The myoclonus almost disappeared after two days of low doses of clonazepam. Hypoxia was held responsible for myoclonus in light of normal laboratory tests and absence of concomitant medical therapy.|
|Saeki T||10.1097/PHM.0000000000001545||2020||Japan||February 2020||To describe the rehabilitation therapy of a COVID-19 patient who received MV||Descriptive: Case Report||Rehabilitation in acute care||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||1||Fever and worsening of respiratory conditions, until his percutaneous oxygen saturation was < 80% while receiving 10 L/min oxygen via a non-rebreather mask||Rehabilitation therapy||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||A 65-year-old man was admitted to ICU and MV started due to worsening of his respiratory condition. Six days after admission, rehabilitation therapy started but limited to positioning, postural drainage and passive mobilisation, while increased to active exercises, standing and stepping, gait and endurance training as the patient’s conditions got better. On day 19, he was extubated and, on day 34, discharged and instructed to continue home exercise. One month after discharge, muscle strength and activity of daily living returned to normal. This report highlights the importance of early rehabilitation in severe COVID-19 patients.|
|Sakai T||10.2340/16501977-2731||2020||Japan||From April 24 to May 24, 2020||To describe the effectiveness and risk management of remote rehabilitation for COVID-19 patients||Descriptive: Case Series||General postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Any Activity limitation and participation restriction (d)||Post-acute||COVID-19||43||N/A||Remote rehabilitation||Direct rehabilitation||Destination after discharge, PCR results, mobility scores on level surfaces, and Barthel Index total scores||Need for intubation and rehabilitation-related complications||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Eighteen COVID-19 patients underwent remote rehabilitation using a mobile terminal to minimize contact: all of them were discharged home or to a hotel and no serious adverse events were observed. Remote rehabilitation was an effective and safe modality against the transmission of infection and could facilitate rehabilitation of patients in COVID-19 wards. It should be noted that patients in the remote rehabilitation group were significantly younger than those in the direct rehabilitation group and that the most severe cases belonged to the direct rehabilitation group.|
|Sassone B||10.1097/HCR.0000000000000539||2020||Italy||From January 7 to April 6, 2020||To investigate and quantify the reduction of PA in patients with automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention of sudden death||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Patients with automatic ICDs||24||N/A||N/A||PA 40 days before the national lockdown began||Daily PA (hours/day) was estimated by processing recorded data from ICD-embedded accelerometric sensors used by the rate-responsive pacing systems.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Schirinzi T||10.1002/mdc3.13026||2020||Italy||From 20th of April to 2nd of May 2020||to remotely investigate the impact of COVID-19 emergency on daily-life of a cohort of Italian PD patients, specifically focussing on the relationship between physical activity changes and the self-perceived health.||Descriptive: Historical cohort||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||people with Parkinson Disease||74||N/A||N/A||N/A||motor activity habits before COVID-19 emergency:
- physiotherapy/rehabilitation practice,
- sports practice (type and weekly frequency)
motor activity habits during lockdown:
- physiotherapy/rehabilitation practice
- physical exercise practice (indoor/outdoor, type of activity)
- a self-reported questionnaire to quantify the intensity of physical activity as Metabolic Equivalent (MET) min/week
- use of technology-based tools: previous experience, frequency of current use, opinion on the usefulness
- use of wearable devices
- perception of own health during COVID-19 emergency
- Three self-administered scales: the International Physical Activity Questionnaires – Short Form, the Parkinson’s Well-Being Map (PWBM), the Beck Depression Index
|Schlachetzki F||10.1177/1357633X20943327||2020||Germany||From January to April 2020||To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on stroke consultations and treatment recommendations using the acute consultant database of the telestroke network TEMPiS||Descriptive: Historical cohort||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Telemedicine consultations in the telestroke network TEMPiS||N/A||N/A||Data collected during the first four months of 2020||Data collected during the same months in the years 2017–2019||Data for presumed and definite ischemic stroke, recommendations for rtPA and EVT||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Shan MX||10.1136/bcr-2020-237406||2020||USA||N/A||To report the case of a patient receiving pulmonary rehabilitation following COVID-19 infection||Descriptive: Case Report||Specialized postacute rehabilitation||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Post-acute||COVID-19||1||At admission:
- 8 days of fever, chills, cough and lethargy and positive outpatient COVID-19 test
|In acute ward:
- including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, cefepime, doxycycline and tocilizumab
During patient’s rehabilitation course
- therapy focused on improving activity tolerance and endurance
functional outcome measured with multiple assessments:
- the Chair Stand Test
- the Timed Up & Go
- the 6MWT
|N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This is the case report of an elderly woman who survived COVID-19 and was referred to the Acute Rehabilitation Unit for pulmonary rehabilitation.
Patient's functional outcomes, as measured by Chair Stand Test, TImed Up & Go and 6MWT, improved in the 11 days she spend in the rehabilitation unit.
Her gait speed, heart rate, oxygen saturation after ambulation and incentive spirometer volume showed similar improvements.
She was discharged home with a prescription for a rollator as well as home and outpatient cardiopulmonary therapy for continued rehabilitation.
|Shariyate MJ||10.22038/abjs.2020.47626.2333||2020||Iran||March 2020||To report three cases of COVID-19 patients with fragility hip fractures||Descriptive: Case Series||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Any other body structure and function-generic (s/b)||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Patients with fragility hip fractures developing COVID-19||3||Patient 1: 73 year old male admitted with intertrochanteric femoral fracture, complaining weakness. He was transferred to PACU and was discharged from the hospital after 2 days; he returned to the hospital 3 days after discharge with new onset fever, weakness, dyspnea, and anorexia.
Patient 2: 69 year old male admitted with intertrochanteric femoral fracture, complaining weakness.
Partient 3: 93 year old female admitted with femoral neck fracture; he showed a low grade fever along with cough and feeling of fatigue.
|Patient 1 underwent surgical fixation under spinal anesthesia and intravenous sedation.
Patient 2 was treated in a same manner as was done for Patient 1.
Patient 3: the authors urged to postpone surgery due to severe pulmonary involvement in the patient.
All three patients received oseltamivir and hydroxychloroquine. One patient also received corticosteroid.
|N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||Elderly patients with fragile lower extremity fractures are at high risk of COVID-19. The authors recommended careful assessment using chest CT scan and other lab tests.|
|Tan GP||10.1016/j.resp.2020.103515||2020||Singapore||From January 29 to May 29, 2020||To describe the clinical characteristics and outcome of individuals affected by COVID-19 and Platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome-POS||Descriptive: Case Series||Rehabilitation in acute care||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||5||Oxygen desaturation, dyspnea and tachypnea during physiotherapy when sat up from a recumbent position||A modified physiotherapy approach including bed exercises, pre-emptive increases in supplemental oxygen in anticipation of movement and/or exercise, and interval training with multiple breaks||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||During physiotherapy when sat up from recumbent position, five out of 20 ICU survivors presented POS, a clinical syndrome characterized by orthostatic oxygen desaturation and positional dyspnea from supine to an upright position. A modified physiotherapy approach was instituted: bed exercises, pre-emptive increases in supplemental oxygen in anticipation of movement and/or exercise, and interval training with multiple breaks. POS resolved over a median (range) of 17 (6–39) days. Compared to ICU survivors without POS, patients with POS were older and had lower body mass index. POS is an under-recognized clinical feature in severe COVID-19 ARDS and should be considered by healthcare personnel.|
|Tenforde MW||10.15585/mmwr.mm6930e1||2020||USA||From April 15 to June 15, 2020||To interview adults tested positive at an outpatient visit about symptoms present at the time of testing, whether those symptoms had resolved by the interview date, and whether they had returned to their usual state of health at the time of interview||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Any Activity limitation and participation restriction (d)||Post-acute||COVID-19 outpatients||274||N/A||Telephone interview, 2-3 weeks after testing||N/A||Baseline chronic medical conditions, symptoms present at the time of testing, whether those symptoms had resolved by the interview date, and whether subjects had returned to their usual state of health at the time of interview||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||
|Trifan G||10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105167||2020||USA||N/A||To report the case of a young female with history of CADASIL with COVID-19 with acute ischemic stroke as the sole manifestation.||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Clinical presentation||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Patients with CADASIL developing acute stroke and COVID-19||1||A 37 years old African American female with a genetically proven CADASIL mutation referred to ICU presenting with left leg weakness, dysarthria and ataxia. MRI brain without contrast revealed an acute ischemic stroke in the right pons along with extensive chronic white matter signal abnormalities characteristic of CADASIL.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The authors reported a paradigmatic case of a woman with CADASIL and positive to SARS-CoV2 showing an acute stroke. They affirmed that CADASIL associated imaging changes have remained stable throughout the years. Thus, while it is possible that SARS-Cov-2 infection may have contributed to the etiology of the acute pontine stroke, the authors could not conclusively prove the causation.|
|Turgut A||10.5152/j.aott.2020.20209||2020||Turkey||From March 16 to May 22, 2020||To evaluate the types and the frequency of fractures, both in the pediatric and adult population during the COVID-19 pandemic and to find out the differences in comparison to the non-pandemic period.||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||N/A||Epidemiology - Prevalence||N/A||N/A||Patients with a new fracture||3996||N/A||N/A||Patients with new fractures admitted to the hospital in the same date range in 2018 and 2019.||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The frequency of fractures decreased by approximately one-third during the pandemic period compared with that in the non-pandemic period (1794, 1747, 670 fractures in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively). The mean age of the patients with a fracture in the pediatric group was found to have decreased also. Finger fractures in pediatric patients and metatarsal fractures in adult patients were found to have significantly decreased during the pandemic. The decreased mobility on the streets directly affects the fracture frequency.|
|Vitali M||10.1016/j.tcr.2020.100336||2020||Germany and UK||March-April 2020||To report a case of axillary nerve palsy in a patient affected by COVID-19 who kept a wrong decubitus position while receiving CPAP therapy.||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Post-acute||COVID-19||1||A 46 year-old Caucasian male referred to ICU with shortness of breath, body temperature 38 °C and RR=30 breaths per minute; oxygen saturation was 95% on room air. An orthopedic consult revealed that patient had left shoulder abduction and extension limited to 45° each, left deltoid muscle hyposthenia of 3⁄4 on MRC, without sensitivity disturbances.||CPAP four times a day for 3 h each time, alternating with Venturi oxygen mask with 60% FiO2 oxygen flow and a cycle of passive physical therapy||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This clinical case highlights an uncommon side effect, axillary nerve compression, that might occur while keeping the lateral decubitus for a long time during CPAP.
|Weerahandi H||10.1101/2020.08.11.20172742||2020||USA||N/A||To characterize overall health, physical health and mental health of patients one month after discharge for severe COVID-19||Analytical: Cross-sectional study||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Any other body structure and function-generic (s/b)||Post-acute||COVID-19 patients||161||N/A||N/A||N/A||- degree of residual pulmonary impairment
- overall health status and mental health
|Whittemore P||10.1136/bcr-2020-236586||2020||UK||N/A||To present a case of a 60-year-old man who developed extensive COVID-19 pneumonitis and was successfully managed with low-flow oxygen and awake proning||Descriptive: Case Report||Rehabilitation in acute care||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||1||Significant and worsening shortness of breath, COVID-19 symptoms and SpO2 of 88%||Awake proning||N/A||SpO2, need of MV||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||A 60-year-old man with extensive COVID-19 pneumonitis was successfully managed with low-flow oxygen therapy and awake proning, avoiding the need of increasing oxygen therapy or of invasive MV, and discharged home. Awake proning, lasting as much as possible but ideally at least 18 hours/day, could be used in mechanically ventilated as well as non-mechanically ventilated patients to improve oxygenation and avoid the need of MV.|
|Wurm H||10.1177/1352458520943791||2020||Germany and UK||April 2020||To report the case of a MS patient who had received B-cell-depleting immunotherapy with rituximab for about 3 years and developed COVID-19 symptoms||Descriptive: Case Report||N/A||Epidemiology - Natural history/Determining and modifying factors||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute, post-acute, late-onset, or permanent on a pre-existing health condition||Patient with relapsing MS developing COVID-19||1||A 59-year-old female MS patient showed mild paraparesis and paraspasticity and a limited walking distance; after 4 days she devolped dry cough, dyspnea, fatigue, headache, nausea, fever of 39°C and low oxygen saturation||Prophylactic IV antibiotic (ampicillin/sulbactam)||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||This MS patient, in treatment with immunotherapy for 3 years, recovered 14 days after COVID-19 symptoms onset despite having a 0% B lymphocyte count and not developing SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. This case suggests that MS patients receiving B-cell-depleting therapy are not at higher risk of severe complications from primary SARS-CoV-2 infection, and demonstrates that viral clearance is possible without B-cell involvement and antiviral therapy.|
|Zha L||10.21037/apm-20-753||2020||China||From March 4, 2020 to May 5, 2020,||To present a modified version of rehabilitation exercises aimed at improving the pulmonary function of patients and easing the expectoration process with acupressure integrated into the exercises to facilitate the recovery and maintenance of pulmonary function||Analytical: Cohort study||Rehabilitation in acute care||Micro - Interventions (efficacy/harms)||Respiratory structures (s430) and related functions (Respiration b440-455)||Acute||COVID-19||60||At baseline the prevalence for dry cough, productive cough, difficulty in expectoration and dyspnea were 41.7%, 43.3%, 35.0% and 50.0%, respectively||Modified rehabilitation exercise which is a full-body exercise retrieved from Chinese martial art Eight-section Brocade||N/A||Over time prevalence of self-reported symptoms of: - Dry cough - Productive cough - Difficulty in expectoration - Dyspnea||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||The current study found that pronounced improvement occurred in all four investigated respiratory symptoms in COVID-19 patients who performed the Modified rehabilitation exercise during both
hospitalization and quarantine period. In particular, after one month, the prevalence rates were
- 11.7% in dry cough,
- 11.7% in productive cough,
- 8.3% in difficulty in expectoration
15% of patients reported dyspnea as a remained symptom.